Parliament – Various Motions and Resolutions
The motions and resolutions are devices of proceedings in Parliament which are generally moved by members to divert focus of house on matters of urgent public interest and all of the motions are fall in 3 principle categories:-
- Substantive Motion – A substantive motion is a self-contained independent proposal submitted for the approval of the House and drafted in such a way as to be capable of expressing a decision of the House such as removal of President or SC judge.
- Substitute Motion – The Motions moved in substitution of the original motion to divert attention on a policy or situation or any other matter are called substitute motions.
- Subsidiary Motion – They by themselves has no meaning and are not capable of stating the decision of the house without reference to original motion and further divided in 3 categories:-
- Ancillary – They are motions which are recognized by the practice of the House as the regular way of proceeding with various kinds of business. Such as bill be taken into consideration or passed.
- Superseding – They are motions which, though independent in form, are moved in the course of debate on another question and seek to supersede that question.
- Amendment – They are subsidiary motions which interpose a new process of question and decision between the main question and its decision. Amendments may be to the clause of a Bill, to a resolution or to a motion, or to an amendment to a clause of a Bill, resolution or motion.
- Closure Motion – it is used by member to cut or stop debate on matter of discussion. If adopted then matter immediately put on vote either any part or clause of it discussed or not.
- Privilege Motion – it is moved by a member against minister on breach of a Parliamentary privilege such as hide or discloses wrong facts. Its purpose is to censure the concerned minister.
- Calling Attention Motion – it is moved by member of either hose of Parliament to call attention of a minister on matter of urgent importance and to seek authoritative statement from him if adopted. Like Zero hour, it is also an Indian innovation but included in Rules of procedure.
- Adjournment Motion – it is used to draw attention of the house on a matter of urgent public importance and should be backed 50 members to be admitted. It can’t be introduced in RS as included censure against govt. This discussion can’t be more than 2hours and 30 minutes if adopted.
- Restriction on Adjournment Motion – The motion shall not a) include more than one matter, b) dealt with matter pending in court of law, c) raise any question that can be raised by other motions, d) raise question of privilege. Also motion shall be restricted to a specific matter of recent occurrence which includes responsibility of Govt of India.
- No Confidence Motion – it is a check on confidence of LS on Council of Ministers. If this is adopted then govt or entire ministry shall resigns but this motion shall be backed by 50 members to be adopted. It can be introduced only in LS.
- Motion of Thanks – The President address Parliament at every first session of Fiscal yr or after general election and outline policies of govt. This address is discussed in each house on ‘Motion of Thanks’ At end of discussion, Motion is put to vote and must be passed otherwise it amounts to defeat of govt.
- Half an Hour Discussion – It is moved for sufficient important matter on which lot of debate has occurred and needs clarification on matter of fact. The Speaker can allot 3 days in week for such motions.
- Short Duration Discussion – this is also known as two hour discussion and member can seek debate on matter of urgent public importance. The Speaker can allot 2days/week for such motions. There shall be no formal motion before the house nor voting for above two discussions of half an hour or two hour.
- The Resolutions are basically a tool to get attention of house on matters of urgent public interest. Every resolution is itself of a type of Substantive Motion. The only difference is that all motions are not necessary to put on vote but all resolutions are.
- Form of Resolution – A resolution may be in the form of a declaration of opinion, or a recommendation; or may be in the form so as to record either approval or disapproval by the House of an act or policy of Government, or convey a message; or request an action; or call attention to a matter for consideration by Government; or in such other form as the Speaker may consider appropriate.
- Private Member Resolution – It is moved by private member other than a minister. It is discussed only on alternate Fridays afternoon sitting.
- Govt Resolution – It is moved by minister and can be discussed on any day from Mon to Thursday.
- Statutory Resolution – It can be moved by any member or minister in pursuance of a provision in Constitution or an Act of Parliament.