Highlights of Kyoto Protocol (Part 2)
The first commitment period from 2008 to 2012 of Kyoto Protocol is a period to reach commitment provided under Annex B (at least cut emission by 5% from level of 1990). Here we will continue with provisions of Kyoto Protocol and for previous part CLICK ME.
Clean Development Mechanism (Article 12)
- A Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is basically a tool of sustainable development for parties other than Annex 1 and achieving commitments under Article 3 for Annex 1 parties. Under it :-
- Parties other than Annex 1 will be benefited from project activities of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs); and
- Parties in Annex 1 shall be able to meet compliance under Article 3 from such project activities of certified emission reduction.
Provided that certified project activities shall assist developing countries (vulnerable to adverse impact of climate change) to meet administrative expenses. Also activities are subject to guidelines as may be prescribed by COP for more accountability or transparency.
- The CERs are a type of emission units (or Carbon Credits) issued by CDM board for emission reductions achieved by CDM projects.
- A Carbon Credit is a generic term for any tradable certificate or permit representing the right to emit one tonne of carbon dioxide or the mass of another greenhouse gas with a carbon dioxide equivalent to one tonne of carbon dioxide.
COP (Article 13)
- The COP shall be the supreme body of convention and serve as meeting of Parties to protocol.
- The Parties to convention and not to Kyoto Protocol may participate in COP as observers but can’t take part in making of any decision (or don’t have power of vote).
- The COP shall
- Periodically review obligations of parties under Kyoto Protocol;
- On basis of all information (submitted by parties), discuss and take necessary action regarding implementation of Kyoto Protocol;
- Establish subsidiary bodies as per requirement of implementation of Kyoto Protocol;
- Exchange information of different measures by different parties among others and some other functions as necessary for implementation of Kyoto Protocol.
Miscellaneous (Article 14-28)
- The COP shall define relevant principles, rules or guidelines for verification and reporting of emission trading. The trading of emissions shall supplement the domestic actions to reach the target. The Provision provides for creation of Carbon Market for trading of CERs or Carbon Credits (Article 17).
- The COP shall determine procedures or mechanism to address cases of non compliance of obligations and make list of consequences as per degree or frequency of failure. (Article 18)
- Amendment to Kyoto Protocol (Article 20)
- Any party can propose amendment to protocol in any ordinary session of COP and text of amendment shall be communicated to each party at least before 6 months of meeting.
- The Parties shall try to reach on an agreement on proposed amendment by consensus but if no agreement reached then amendment shall be adopted by at least 3/4 of members present and voting.
- The instruments of adopted amendment shall be deposited with depository and amendment shall come into force for parties have accepted it on 90th day after date of deposit.
- Similarly an Annexure of Kyoto Protocol can be amended by any party by following above procedure. (Article 21)
- Every Party shall have one vote or number of votes equal to number of member states if any regional economic organization is exercising right to vote. (Article 22)
- The Secretary General of UN shall be the Depository of Kyoto Protocol. (Article 23)
- The Protocol shall enter into force when at least 55 parties to convention shall give ratification or approval to Kyoto Protocol. (Article 25)
- Any party can withdraw from Kyoto Protocol within 3 yrs from date on which protocol has entered into force and any withdrawal from convention (UNFCCC) shall be considered as withdrawal from Kyoto Protocol. (Article 27)
Doha Amendment (2012)
- Article 3 – The Annex B is amended and so targets are redefined for parties included in Annex 1. But Article 3 is amended to reducing their overall emissions of such gases as in Annex A by at least 18% below 1990 levels in the commitment period 2013 to 2020.
- Surplus assigned amount units (AAUs) can be carried over without limit from the first to the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol by Parties included in Annex I that have a target for the second commitment period.
- In Doha, governments advanced the completion of new infrastructure to channel technology and finance to developing nations and move toward the full implementation of this infrastructure and support. Most importantly, they:
- Endorsed the selection of the Republic of Korea as the host of the Green Climate Fund (GCF) and the work plan of the Standing Committee on Finance. The GCF is expected to start its work in Songdo in the second half of 2013.
- Confirmed a UNEP-led consortium as host of the Climate Technology Center (CTC), for an initial term of five years. The CTC, along with its associated Network, is the implementing arm of the UNFCCC Technology Mechanism. Governments also agreed the constitution of the CTCN Advisory Board.